Shortcut key to switch between relative, absolute and mixed references

Excel 2016
You can enter nonrelative references (absolute or mixed) manually by inserting dollar signs in the appropriate positions, or you can use a handy shortcut - F4 key.

When you've entered a cell reference, you can press F4 repeatedly to have Excel cycle through all four reference types.

For example, if you enter = A1 to start a formula, pressing F4 converts the cell reference to = $A$1. Pressing F4 again converts it to = A$1.

Pressing it again displays = $A1. Pressing it one more time returns to the original = A1. Keep pressing F4 until Excel displays the type of reference that you want.

When you name a cell or range, Excel (by default) uses an absolute reference for the name (see Creating and using named ranges). For example, if you give the name SalesForecast to A1:A12, the Refers To box in the Define Name dialog box lists the reference as $A$1:$A$12:

Define Name dialog box in Excel 365

This is almost always what you want. If you copy a cell that has a named reference in its formula, the copied formula contains a reference to the original name.

See also this tip in French: Raccourcis pour basculer entre les références relatives, absolues et mixtes.

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